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Thread: Cyber crimes: Law and practice

  1. #1
    Join Date
    Sep 2003

    Default Cyber crimes: Law and practice

    Cyber crime means any criminal activity in which a computer or network is the source,
    tool or target or place of crime. The Cambridge English Dictionary defines cyber crimes as
    crimes committed with the use of computers or relating to computers, especially through internet.
    Crimes involving use of information or usage of electronic means in furtherance of crime are
    covered under the scope of cyber crime. Cyber Crimes may be committed against persons,
    property and government. The common types of cyber crimes may be discussed under the
    following heads.

    1. Hacking -

    A hacker is an unauthorized user who attempts to or gains access to an information
    system. Hacking is a crime even if there is no visible damage to the system, since it is an invasion
    in to the privacy of data. There are different classes of Hackers.

    a) White Hat Hackers -

    They believe that information sharing is good, and that it is their duty to share their expertise by facilitating access to information. However there are some white hathackers who are just “joy riding" on computer systems.

    b) Black Hat Hackers -

    They cause damage after intrusion. They may steal or modify data or insert viruses or worms which damage the system. They are also called ‘crackers’.

    c) Grey Hat Hackers -

    Typically ethical but occasionally violates hacker ethics Hackers will hack into networks, stand-alone computers and software. Network hackers try to gain unauthorized access to private computer networks just for challenge, curiosity, and distribution of
    information. Crackers perform unauthorized intrusion with damage like stealing or changing of
    information or inserting malware (viruses or worms)

    2. Cyber Stalking -

    This crime involves use of internet to harass someone. The behavior includes false accusations, threats etc. Normally, majority
    of cyber stalkers are men and the majority of victims are women.

    3. Spamming -

    Spamming is sending of unsolicited bulk and commercial messages over the internet. Although irritating to most email users,
    it is not illegal unless it causes damage such as overloading network and disrupting service to sub
    scribers or creates .negative impact on consumer attitudes towards Internet Service Provider.

    4. Cyber Pornography -

    Women and children are victims of sexual exploitation through
    internet. Pedophiles use the internet to send photos of illegal child pornography to targeted
    children so as to attract children to such funs. Later they are sexually exploited for gains.


    It is a criminally fraudulent process of acquiring sensitive information such as
    username, passwords and credit card details by disguising as a trustworthy entity in an electronic communication.

    6. Software Piracy -

    It is an illegal reproduction and distribution of software for business or
    personal use. This is considered to be a type of in fringement of copy right and a violation of a
    license agreement. Since the unauthorized user is not a party to the license agreement it is
    difficult to find out remedies.

  2. #2
    Join Date
    Sep 2003


    7. Corporate Espionage - It means theft of trade secrets through illegal mean
    s such as wire taps or illegal intrusions.

    8. Money Laundering -

    It means moving of illegally acquired cash through financial and other
    systems so that it appears to be legally acquired. eg. Transport cash to a country having less
    stringent banking regulations and move it back by way of loans the interest of which can re
    deducted from his taxes. This is possible prior to computer and internet technology, electronic
    transfers have made it easier and more successful.

    9. Embezzlement -

    Unlawful misappropriation of money, property or an y other thing of value
    that has been entrusted to the offender’s care, custody or control is called embezzlement. Internet
    facilities are misused to commit this crime.

    10. Password Sniffers -

    Password sniffers are programmes that monitor and record the name and
    password of network users as they log in, jeopardizing security at a site. Whoever installs the
    sniffer can impersonate an authorized user and login to access on restricted documents.

    11. Spoofing -

    It is the act of disguising one computer to electro
    nically “look” like another compute, in order to gain access to a system that w
    ould be normally is restricted. Spoofing was used to access valuable information stored in a com
    puter belonging to security expert Tsutomu Shimomura.

    12. Credit Card Fraud -

    In U.S.A. half a billion dollars have been lost annually by consumers who have credit cards and calling card numbers. The
    se are stolen from on-line databases.

    13. Web Jacking -

    The term refers to forceful taking of control of aweb site by cracking the

    14. Cyber terrorism -

    The use of computer resources to intimidate or coerce government, the
    civilian population or any segment thereof in furtherance of political or social objectives is called
    cyber terrorism. Individuals and groups quite often try to exploit anonymous character of the
    internet to threaten governments and terrorize the citizens of the country

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