Laravel is a PHP framework, that allow you to write secure web applications.

Why use Framework ?

Framework provides many functionality commonly used in web applications. For example user authentication, form generation, form handing, etc..

MVC Framework

MVC means Model-View-Controller.

Model == Database (or application logic)
Views == Template, Look and feel of a web site.
Controller == Handles user request.

When we have views part in a different file, it is easy for a designer who don't know PHP can work with look and feel with out messing with application logic.