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  1. #141
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    Default Terrain of Siachen glacier

    Terrain of Siachen glacier

    It is mountainous, precipitous, rugged and ofcourse glacial with an altitude ranging from 5000 to 6500 m and peaks tower to upwards of 7500 m. The glacial flow is from north to south and the area is snow-bound throughout the year.

    Glacial areas are devoid of vegetation. The air is rarified. Temperatures are sub zero through out the year, particularly, so in winter. Free movement both on the ground and in the air is hampered by high velocity winds, low clouds and ice - fogs, moraines, snow drifts and avalanches, crevasses etc. Due to the effects of weather, altitude and terrain conditions, the load carrying capacity of men, animals, helicopters and snow vehicles is severely reduced. Air operations, on an average, are possible for only 180 days a year. Troops and equipment deployed in these areas face hitherto inexperienced hazards of climate and terrain and undergo the vagaries of inhospitable and mind-numbing weather.

    Glacial regions are characterised by dominating ice capped features, steep and narrow ridges inhibiting movement across except through a pass or saddle, along the valley of the glacier. Approaches to the ridge line normally follow routes along re-entrants, involving rock climbing and use of techniques of ice craft. Movement, except along beaten tracks, is difficult and time consuming due to crevasses, ice pinnacles, soft snow and avalanche prone areas.

  2. #142
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    Default Terrain of Siachen glacier

    Terrain of Siachen glacier

    Due to sub-zero temperatures on glacier, direct firing weapons such as MMG (Medium Machine Gun) and RL (Rocket Launcher) are used. Ground observation is limited due to environmental conditions and the terrain. Aerial means of surveillance are confined to periods of good weather and daytime conditions.

    Electro-optics such as night vision devices and medium range Radars to cover the check points are necessary to give 24 hour real time surveillance. Satellite back up, infra red photography/line scan and RPV (Remote Piloted Vehicle)/balloons with suitable sensors will enhance the surveillance potential.

    Helicopter and mechanical means of transportation for troops (snow vehicles/rope way), weapons and supplies will help a lot for long survival at such hostile places.

  3. #143
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    Default Weather of Siachen glacier

    Weather of Siachen glacier

    Winter (Oct to Jan) : Water channel freeze during this period. Snowfalls are occasional and snow bridging of crevasses takes place. Avalanches are not common. Hazards to movement continue.

    Late winter (Feb to Apr) : This period is marked by heavy snowfall, bad weather conditions, frequent avalanches, snow slides and emergence of crevasses. Movement is comparatively restricted.

    Summer (May to Sept) : Intensity of cold is reduced. Crevasses and glaci-fluvial streams make movement hazardous, sometimes impossible. During July - Aug, the region is prone to long spells of bad weather. The glacial region experiences wide range of temperature variations from place to place. The approximate fall in temperature of 5-7 C with an increase of 1000 m in altitude results in a temperature contrast of 20 C between sunny and shady areas.

  4. #144
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    Default Wind on glaciers

    Wind on glaciers

    In glacial regions ridges and passes are seldom non turbulent, and the valleys get high velocity and turbulent winds which can uproot shelters if not properly anchored and secured. The higher the altitude, the greater the wind velocity. High altitude combined with low temperature and glaciation gives rise to very strong local winds, of speeds of as high as 150 kmph, thus adding to the problem of windchill beyond human endurance. A person protected by special EEC (Extra Cold Clothing) can
    stand temperatures of minus 25 C without any wind. However, with a fall in ambient temperature below minus 30 C, the human body experiences a windchill effect.

    Gore-Tex material, though expensive, is highly recommended for very low temperatures. Another alternative is Kashmiri Pashmina wool.

  5. #145
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    Default Mountain sickness

    Mountain sickness

    The lack of oxygen and low atmospheric pressure can cause problems at high altitude. Some of the major symptoms are : prolonged spells of headache, giddiness, vomiting, loss of appetite, sleeplessness, dehydration, palpitation, Pulmonary oedema, frostbite, chilblains etc.

    These symptoms are generally pronounced once an individual goes above 3400 m. At higher altitudes of between 3600 m and 4200 m it has been experienced that a disinclination to move about occurs, together with symptoms such as loss of appetite, sleeplessness, breathlessness, fatigue, blue lips, unconsciousness and pain in the body. At heights above 4200 m these symptoms are compounded with apathy, drowsiness and acute spells of depression. The physical performance of individuals may drop as much as 50 %.

    For mountain sickness, Diamox tablet (not recommended for pregnant ladies and people allergic to sulpha drugs) is very effective. Do consult your physician on the dosage. An alternative medicine is the homeopath variant called COCA-6X, but is to be taken after due consultation with your physician. This is ideal for those allergic to sulpha drugs. Gamow bag (a special equipment to prevent sickness from high altitude) is an alternative.

    Acclimatization will help to reduce the effects of mountain sickness. For every 500 m ascent take 2 days rest when height is 3500 m plus. Normally 20 km is covered in a day (6 to 8 hour trek). If one feels problems due to altitude, climb down to a lower altitude and rest for a day before proceeding further up.

  6. #146
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    Default Acclimatization

    Acclimatization : Mountain sickness can be avoided by acclimatization, avoiding exertion for 72 hours on arrival at the glacier area and eat and drink plenty of fluids. Persons deployed above 4500 m will be called back within 3 months or before if evidence of physical weakness, loss of weight, sleeplessness and irritability is observed. Mental and physical strain will increase the mountain sickness, so be calm at the extreme cold and rarified atmospheric conditions.

    Drink plenty of water (3-4 litres a day), be calm and do not exercise. Do not drink alcohol or smoke a month prior to and during the trek.

    In high altitude area, distance is measured in terms of time rather than space. Unpredictable weather along with extremes temperature will reduce the efficiency of man, machine and animals. Foot movement on a glacier is slow, ardous and extremely taxing on human endurance.

  7. #147
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    Default Siachen glacier

    Siachen glacier : The glacier is 72 km in length and 2 to 8 km wide located in Ladakh, Jammu & Kashmir. Glacier has a wind velocity of 300 kmph and a night temperature of minus 50 C. Lowest temperature recorded is minus 78 C. One litre drinking water at glacier base camp costs Rs 2500 !.

    Taking the advantage of the incomplete delineation of the Line Of Control (LOC) under the Simla agreement of 1972, which stopped at grid reference NJ 9842 beyond which lay the Siachen glacier with northern most point namely Indira point (5800 m). On 13 th April 1984, by operation Meghdoot India occupied the glacier (Rs 3 crore expenditure per day in 1990). 97 % of the casualties are due to the extreme weather conditions.

    Pakistani troops captured much of Kargil in 1947 - '48. India recovered Kargil and Zoji la in 1948 and Zanskar shortly afterwards. POK (Pak Occupied Kashmir) has 80 % of the population of Ladakh.

  8. #148
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    Default Karam Koram highway

    Karam Koram highway : Islamabad (Pakistan) to Kashgar (Kashi) in China's Xinjiang province (1900 km). The highway goes through Chilas, Gilgit, Hunza and Khunjerab pass (4733 m) at Chinese border. Chinese experts and Pakistani engineers began the work in 1965 and completed in 1986. KK highway pass through Kohistan, which is close to the Nanga Parbat (8124 m). Skardu (2438 m) is the HQ of Baltistan. Mt Godwin Austen (K2, 8611 m, world's second highest peak) is in POK near China border. Other famous peak in POK is Gasherbrum (7821 m).

  9. #149
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    Default Interesting facts about Ladakh

    Interesting facts about Ladakh, India

    Lha is a Buddhist god and Lhamo is a goddess. Lotus is sacred for Buddhists - lotus eaters of Ladakh. The majority of Buddhists in Leh and Zanskar eat meat but do not kill animals themselves. So Muslim butchers were requested to come to Leh. All over India, except in Sikh and Christian areas, butchers almost always are Muslims. Buddhists consider it as a sin to kill or eat fish. A monk is called lama, while a nun is called chomo in Ladakh.

    Of all Ladakhis, 56 % in 2001, had never married. Trial marriage is practiced by Muslims in Zanskar : If the marriage does not work, the child born during the 'trail' is assumed to be the child of whoever it's mother fianally marries. Polyandry is practiced in Ladakh - several men having a single woman as legal wife.

    Zo (dzo) is born when a cow mates with a Yak. It is male and is sterile. Found in Da-Hanu near Ladakh. People of Da-Hanu baths once in a year!.

    Mule is born when a horse mates with an ass. In mule, both genders are sterile.

    Eunuch are born with genetical defects (malformed genitals) and are sterile.

  10. #150
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    Aug 2007
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    14

    Default GRET

    great news.... thanks.. PERFECTION

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