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Thread: First Aid

  1. #1
    Join Date
    Apr 2005

    Default First Aid

    First Aid

    Electric shocks

    * Try to remove the victim from the source of electricity as soon as possible with the help of
    * A dry wooden stick
    *Rubber gloves
    *Thick bulk of dry cotton
    *Dry cloth
    *Avoid direct contact.
    * urn off the master switch to disconnect the power
    * If he is not breathing, begin rescue breathing immediately.
    * If there are any signs of respiratory distress start mouth to mouth respiration at once.
    * Take him to the doctor as soon as possible.


    Burns are of 3 types first degree, second degree and third degree, depending on its penetration of the layers of the skin. First degree burn damages the outer layer of the skin, second degree burn go through the second layer of the skin and the third degree burn go through the third layer of the skin which is less painful but destroys the nerve cells in the affected tissue hence the damage will be greater.

    * Try to put off the fire as soon as possible. If it is a flame burn, roll the victim on the ground and wrap with rugs, blanket or coat. In the case of chemical burn, keep burnt area under low pressure of water till the burning subsides.
    * Never apply butter, gention violet, Ink, baking soda or greasy ointments on a burn. They seal heat into the wound and may cause infection.
    * Loosen all the tight clothing and remove clothing on or near the burnt area. If it is over the burnt area do not try to peel it loose.
    * Avoid undue contamination of burn wound and keep the victim in comfort draping him in clean laundry sheets.
    * Apply ice pack or cloth soaked in ice water and change them constantly.
    * It is not recommended to wash the burn if it is a third degree burn.
    * Seek medical attention immediately if the burn covers more than one part of the body, if it is a third degree burn or caused by chemicals and is located on any sensitive area.


    Animal Bites

    * Wash the wound for at least 5 minutes with soap and water to flush out animal saliva.
    * Apply an antiseptic (i.e. hydrogen peroxide)
    * Apply an antibiotic cream to prevent infection
    * Rinse thoroughly and cover with a dressing or clean cloth.
    * A doctor should be contacted if swelling, increasing redness, or drainage occurs, or if there are flu-like symptoms, fever, or swollen glands.

    Snake Bite

    * Check the snakebite for puncture wounds.
    * The type of snake must be identified to help the doctor to recognise the poison gone in and if the snake is killed, it must be taken to the hospital with the patient.
    * Clean the wound. Be sure to wipe away from the bite.
    * Tie a piece of cloth or thread (just tight enough to cut off blood flow through the veins keeping the venom from reaching the heart) 2-3 inches above the injury. You can use a tie as a tourniquet and it should be applied with in 30 minutes of the bite to be affective.
    * Squeeze the incised area to extrude poison from the wound by mechanical suction or even a breast pump.
    * Keep the wound at or below the heart level.
    * Keep the victim calm and lying down. The more the victim moves, the faster the venom spreads through the body.
    * Keep the part cool as warmth hastens the absorption of venom.
    * Watch for general symptoms i.e. sharp pain, bruising, swelling around the bite, weakness, shortness of breath, blurred vision, drowsiness, or vomiting.
    * Get the victim to the hospital as soon as possible.

    Bee sting

    * Remove the stinger by scraping with your fingernail or the blade of a knife
    * Wash with soap and cold water over and around the sting to relieve pain and slow the absorption of the poison.
    * Apply ice pack, calamine lotion, or baking soda-and-water mixture to relieve the swelling and pain.
    * Application of juice of crushed onion also provides relief.
    * Seek medical help if an allergic reaction develops such as difficulty breathing, coughing, headache, unconsciousness etc.


    External Bleeding

    * Make the victim lie down to prevent fainting.
    * Apply direct pressure to stop bleeding by placing a gauge or cleanest cloth available over the wound and press it firmly with the palm of your hand.
    * Elevate the injury. Position the wounded part of the body above the level of the heart (to stop bleeding) if possible while you apply direct pressure.
    * If the bleeding is from the ear, place a clean bandage over the ear, lay the victim on his side, and allow the blood to drain out through the bandage.
    * Application of ice bag ( ice cubes in a thick plastic bag ) directly over the bleeding area is helpful
    * Know the pressure points. If direct pressure and elevation do not sufficiently slow the blood flow, find a pressure point. Large arteries found close to the skin's surface supply blood to the head and to each arm and leg. The most common pressure points used during first aid are located in the upper arms and in the creases above the upper legs. Apply pressure to the closest pressure point to the wound so that the artery is pressed between your fingers and the bone directly behind the artery.

    Internal Bleeding

    Internal bleeding occurs as a result of a direct blow to the body, a fracture, a sprain, or a bleeding ulcer. During internal bleeding blood vessels rupture and blood leaks into body cavities. If a victim receives an injury to the chest or abdomen, internal bleeding should be suspected.

    Symptoms of internal bleeding

    Symptoms include pain and tenderness in the affected area, cold, clammy skin, pale face and lips, weakness or fainting, nausea, thirstiness, rapid, weak or irregular pulse, shortness of breath, dilated pupils and swelling or bruising at the site of injury

    * Check for an open airway and begin rescue breathing if necessary.
    * Call for medical help as soon as possible and keep the victim comfortable until help arrives.
    * The victim may rinse his mouth with water, but do not give a victim of internal bleeding anything to drink.

    Nose Bleeding

    Causes of nose bleeding may be nose injury, strenuous activity, high blood pressure, exposure to high altitudes or blowing your nose too hard.

    * Sit down and remain calm.
    * Lean slightly forward to prevent blood from the running in to your throat.
    * Pinch both the nostril closed between the thumb and the fore finger. The pressure should be applied just below the nasal bone and maintain pressure with the fingers for at least 2 minutes.
    * Place cold, wet cloth or wedge of cotton in side the nostril and hold it there and at the same time try to apply the pressure outside the nostril for 5 minutes.
    * Put an ice pack over the bridge of the nose.
    * If heavy bleeding persists or if nosebleeds recur frequently, consult a physician.

    Keywords: Health care, first aid, burns, bites, bleeding, electric shock
    Last edited by minisoji; 12-16-2010 at 10:50 AM.

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